Monday, March 16, 2020

Greek City state and the Roman Empire

Greek City state and the Roman Empire The Americans and the Western nations’ political systems and ideologies are in a way based on the ancient Greece and the Romans’ ideas. These countries are not the only ones that were affected. However, most of the ideas that are being used by governments in the world were originally borrowed from Greece (Wolin, 1960).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Greek City state and the Roman Empire specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Issues of Democracy and republican governments are some of the major political ideologies that were adopted from these two ancient states. People’s participation in political constitutions and content has its origins in these societies. Changes that occurred in Greek city-states and Roman Empire that explain the emergence of specific understanding of politics Firstly, the ancient Greece was once never a unified state but a conjugant of different nations. The large geographic bound aries that resulted in travel and communication difficulties brought the need for communities to adopt their own governing bodies and councils. These political units were known as city-states. These city-states, being separated by large geographical terrains, adopted different political systems. For example, the Corinth adopted the oligarchy system of government. Other city-states such as Sparta established mixed forms of government, which constituted both oligarchy and monarchial systems of government. This is how these aspects of politics emerged. Athens developed a democratic form of government that allowed the citizens to participate in the drafting of the constitution and the governance of their city-states. They purposefully did this to quell the long periods of unrest and conflicts in the city-state. These reforms transferred power from the hands of a few nobles to the citizens thus ensuring political participation. This is also known as democracy. Democracy is undeniably the most practiced form of governance in the civilized world. The Athenian government was made up of three major segments. These included the assembly, the council and the people’s court. They consisted of juries made up of the citizens. This was in order to oversee cases involving fellow citizens. Different from the Athenian form of government, the Romans adopted a Republic structure of governance. In this form of government, the elected persons (apart from just governing) were also expected to be responsible and responsive to their voters (Augustine, 1961).Advertising Looking for essay on ancient history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Romans were the first to draw up a constitution, which was a tool that was later adopted by a majority of governments around the globe. These countries exhibited republican tendencies. These sets of laws written down by the Roman government were, at the time, collectively kn own as the Laws of the Twelve Tablets. Nations later came to realize that having the laws written down protected the rights of the citizens and shielded them from unfounded prosecutions. Another important political aspect that was exhibited by these ancient societies was eligibility for political participation. For example, in Athens, the issues of eligibility for political rights and citizenship were seriously upheld. Therefore, in order to fully participate in politics, one had to be a mature male whose parents were both Athenians. The modern world states and nations that came thereafter came up with various qualifications. For one to be able to participate in politics or to be declared a citizen of the respective nation, he or she had to meet those qualifications. Philosophers were concerned about the issue of human action since they were greatly engaged in differentiating between activity, passivity, involuntarism and culpable actions. Action became a major philosophical topic i n the early 1960s and is slowly becoming a major sub-discipline in modern philosophy. A causalist school of thought postulates that an individual’s reason for acting is the cause of his or her action. It can be accurately argued that reasons lead to actions. Some philosophers like Harry Frankfurt have tried to explain the concept of human action and has tried to determine its compatibility with the large concept of determinism. Philosophers argued that political revolutions experienced in the governments of the world were as a result of human action. People are never satisfied with their constitution. They are always grumbling, never quiet and always require that some changes be made on the constitution. Under the concept of human action was another topic of humanism. Humanism marries the concepts of history and human actions. The concept of eligibility for political rights and citizenship were greatly focused upon and qualifications were set for individuals to meet. The mode rn world states and states that came thereafter came up with various qualifications for one to be able to participate in politics. Apart from politics, it was also necessary that one met the set standards before being granted complete citizenship of a city-state (Sayers, 1999). The citizens were the only ones who were allowed to own and keep slaves together with all other forms of property.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Greek City state and the Roman Empire specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Sparta, for example, women were afforded the opportunity and privilege of being literate. This was a different ethical dimension compared to what was the norm in previous years. This was quite different from what other city-states like Athens did to their womenfolk. The liberation of women in Athens, for example, became an inspiration to the contemporary states and societies to recognize the position of women in the society. Another important issue was the payment of taxes. The ancient Greek, Roman and Greek states lay much emphasis on tax payment. These changes in ethical dimensions formed the economic background of a majority of the states that came thereafter. References Augustine, C. (1961). Confessions. Baltimore: Penguin Books. Sayers, S. (1999). Plato’s Republic: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Wolin, S. (1960). Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political thought. Boston: Brown Co.

Friday, February 28, 2020

The Difference in the Use of Language between the Young and the Old Research Proposal - 1

The Difference in the Use of Language between the Young and the Old Generation - Research Proposal Example People belonging to the young generation think that the old are normally slow, in terms of thought, and may not be aware of the modern subjects they normally discuss. This may result in a different language use between the two generations because; people belonging to the young generation tend to use slang in their conversation with the belief that it makes their conversation more entertaining. However, this form of language is normally perceived by people belonging to the old generation as rude and disrespectful. These expectations influence the different language between the two generations. The other factor that results to a variance in the use of language amid the young generation and the old generation is the generational perspective. In this instance, it is evident that people who lived during World War 2 and the Great depression, tend to be formal in their use of language, this is because of the belief instilled in them that the use of language contributes to respect. However, there is a generation referred to as the Baby Boomers who tend to exhibit a communication style that tends to be more personal. The other generation is generation X that exhibits little formality in their use of language. Therefore, it is true to state that the generational perspective also influences the difference in language use between the two generations. The change in technology, which led to, the introduction of computers, phones, and social media have also led to a difference in language use between the young and the old generation.

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Research Questions Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Research Questions - Assignment Example Almost all areas of study are enhanced by field research, but in particular those that deal with humans as they relate to their environment are most assisted. Ethnography, Sociology, cultural anthropology, environmental and industrial psychology and of course forensic criminology as it relates to causation by environment and culture are all areas of study that must have a field work component to assure validity. Criminological theories such as Strain, Labeling, and the like have an environmental component that can best be assed via the field researcher’s involvement. 2: Certainly different research can require differing roles for the field researcher. The complete participant approach, the spy whose identity as observer is completely obscured to the participant, may at first seem the ideal approach. Like a double agent the complete participant is undercover and supposedly not affecting the participants. However, the fact that this role is assuming a part in the process must at last affect the results in some fashion. The participant as observer is similar to the above in that the researcher is identified as such but ensconced in the environment as well. This method adds some separation as this reveals the truth of the researcher’s intentions, however, the researchers can gain the trust of the participants in perhaps a more effective way. The next method, observer as participant, is again similar to the previous but there is more of a distinct separation between the researcher and the participant. There is very little trust gained and no i nformal associations created, it is almost the role of a survey taker who has extremely minimal interactions with the participant and creates a professional and formal setting, which may work for simple studies, but not more complex cultural analysis. Finally there is the role of complete observer, the voyeur, the eavesdropper who is

Friday, January 31, 2020

Business Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Business Economics - Essay Example This essay stresses that government policy influences the main circulation of money in the economy. The annual budget shows opportunities and threats for our manufacturing industry. This is because it enables us to know the sectors of the economy that is being encouraged and those areas that are being discouraged. Through this, we can make decisions about how to distribute our scarce resources and also pay our obligations to the state in a way and manner that suits our best interest. Microeconomics is about the elements of demand and supply and it studies trends and patterns in consumer decision-making in a given industry. This paper makes a conclusion that the presence of state-owned firms that have the objective of improving the lives of people implies that our manufacturing company will do quite well in China because we will be up in competition against entities that are not positioned to compete as aggressively as other UK entities around the world. Hence, we have an advantage in China and the propensity to attain better results and achieve better successes than our competitors, the SOEs of China. locating our business in China gives us the chance to get lower operation costs. This is because the costs of doing business in China are low due to the current economic policy which encourages businesses from overseas to set up their operations in China. Hence the knowledge of the Chinese macro-economy and the current economic policy will be a plus for us in dealing with our expansion policy.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

BIG Brother and the Internet Essay -- Web security Internet Essays

'BIG Brother' and the Internet The Internet invention has most certainly opened many doors for a faster, more efficient educational medium. One can find information about almost everything, discussions range from daily issues to highly academic and scientific issues. It has indeed helped this generation to be much more productive and efficient. The vast web of electronic media that connects us is heralding a new age of communications. New digital networks offer a tremendous potential to empower individuals in an ever-overpowering world. However, these communications networks are also the subject of significant debate concerning governance and jurisdiction. While the free flow of information is generally a positive thing, serious problems arise when information flows free, problems such as: How to protect children and undesiring adults from exposure to sexually explicit or potentially offensive materials? How to protect intellectual property rights? How to determine which country's laws have jurisdiction over a medium that is nowhere and everywhere at the same time? How best to protect privacy and protect our values? How to ensure that legislators, access providers, and network users do not stifle disagreeable speech? While well-established legal principles and cultural norms give structure and coherence to uses of conventional media, the new digital media do not fit so easily into existing frameworks. The Internet might be helpful in making lives much more dynamic and resourceful, but we also hear hundreds of horror stories related to the Internet. Some people argue that it also has the potential of destroying our generation by exposing it to "pornography" and other "indecent" material readily available on the Intern... ...plamem.html>" (March 28, 97). 4: Biskupic Joan "Exploring the Frontiers of Internal Freedom" (March 17, 97) Document. "<http://washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/wplate/1997-03/17/037l-03179- idx.html>" (April7, 97). 5: Burton, Scott "The Indecency of the Communication Decency Act" Document."<http://www.isc.rit.edu/~sab0276/stv/cda.html>" (March 28, 97). 6: Fena, Lori , and Godwin, Mike. "Your Constitutional Rights have been Sacrificed for PoliticalExpediency" "<http:www.eff.org/pub/Alerts/cda_020296_eff.statement>" (March 28, 97). 7: Press Release. "Reno v. ACLU: The Road to the Supreme Court" (October 31, 96) Document. <http://www.aclu.org/news/n103196b.html>" (March 28, 97). 8: Webmaster. "ClariNet files suit over Communication Decency Law" Document. "<http://www.clarinet.com/suitepage.html>" (March 28, 97).

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Contrasting Attitudes in Two Campers in Cloud Country by Sylvia Plath Essay

Sylvia Plath’s poem â€Å"Two Campers in Cloud Country† displays tones of naturalization and of objection to society. The speaker expresses his distaste for the mundane life and his respect for nature by incorporating style with literary devices. In Sylvia Plath’s poem â€Å"Two Campers in Cloud Country† the speaker uses diction and figurative language to portray attitudes of mockery towards civilization and awe towards the freedom of nature. First, the speaker opens the poem by saying â€Å"In this country there is neither measure nor balance† (l. 1). This has a negative connotation and is the initial expression of how the speaker uses diction to display negative feelings to society. Another negative connotation is when the speaker calls the clouds â€Å"man-shaming† (l. 3). The speaker also refers to people as â€Å"trolls† (l. 6), insinuating that people are slaves to society. These negative connotations are directed towards the mundane city life with it’s â€Å"labeled elms† (l. 9) and it’s â€Å"tame tea-roses† (l. 9). Another portrayal of the speaker’s mockery of society is the use of sound devices. This is important when considering the diction because the plosive sounds give the reader a subconscious understanding of how the speaker feels. For example, the word â€Å"gesture† (l. 4) presents the naturalistic view on how insignificant people are in comparison to the clouds. As seen in line six, â€Å"trolls† also is used for a sound device coupled with negative connotations. Another example of coupling plosive sounds with negative connotations would be â€Å"Public Gardens† (l. 7). The plosive sound devices are purposefully placed by the speaker to create a more apparent dissatisfaction in his diction. More often than not the speaker makes blatant statements towards the harsh and confining life in the city. By stating â€Å"one wearies of the Public Gardens† (l. 7) the speaker is deliberately pointing to the civilization’s tedious lifestyle. In line 17 the speaker says â€Å"It is comfortable, for a change, to mean so little†. This implies that the speaker’s bondage to society is broken by the freedom of nature. More subtly are sardonic inserts used to portray the speaker’s mocking tone. For example, â€Å"Here on the last frontier of the big, brash spirit: (l. 12) displays a tone of sarcasm towards how cities may view themselves. Whether it is blatant or subtle, the speaker delivers his attitude of mockery through diction. Second, the speaker expresses an attitude of awe towards nature after a tone shift. The tone shift in the beginning of stanza five changes from that of sardonic to admiration. The speaker describes the horizons as being so beautiful that â€Å"the colors assert themselves† (l. 14). Not only does this give an appealing and vibrant connotation. It shows respect for nature’s ability to be independent and control itself with or without the encouragement of man. In line 19 the speaker describes the rocks as â€Å"conceiving a dynasty of perfect cold†. To those who are not like the Two Campers this may be an oxymoron; to the Two Campers it deems true. This quote also shows how the speaker finds refuge in the outdoors. The tone remains to be in veneration but shows more dreamlike characteristics when the speaker announces â€Å"Tell me I’m here† (l. 21). The tone’s tendencies to be rather naturalistic become more apparent in the final two stanzas of the poem. The speaker also uses sound devices to exhibit the comfort of nature. Soft sounds such as â€Å"simplicities sough† (l. 25) and â€Å"Sleepily as Lethe† (l. 26) make lulling and peaceful sounds. Another soft sound used by the speaker is â€Å"lightest sighs† (l. 24). These sounds are comforting to the reader and are deliberately used to create a subtle liking for nature as opposed to the plosive and harsh sounds of the city. The tone shift of stanza five gives way to an important attitude of awe that the speaker portrays with his diction. Another way the speaker portrays the initial attitude of mockery is through figurative language. The speaker uses personification to contribute. The speaker expresses the want of a trip where â€Å"trees and clouds and animals pay no notice† (l. ). Personifying the trees and clouds seems that the speaker is acknowledging that nature is unconcerned with humans and the city due to it being held in such high esteem. It seems that nature looks down upon the city for attempting to mimic or recreate the fresh environment with â€Å"labeled elms† (l. 9) and â€Å"Public Gardens† (l. 7). The speaker further mocks the city by holding nature in such high esteem and becoming bored by the monotonous society, encouraging nature to â€Å"pay no notice† (l. 8). Plath also uses alliteration to mock civilization by calling the tea-roses â€Å"tame† (l. 9). In order to portray the speaker’s attitude in the comparison of nature to civilization, the speaker incorporates symbolism. For example, the speaker states â€Å"The pines blot our voices up in their lightest sighs† (l. 24). This is symbolic of how nature is preventing the troubles of society from disturbing nature and all of it’s grandeur. These figurative language devices contribute significantly to the speaker’s attitude. Unlike the figurative language supporting a sardonic tone to society, other devices are found after the tone shift to contribute to the tone of veneration to nature. The speaker expresses his awe by acknowledging that the country is alive. The speaker says that â€Å"night arrives in one gigantic step† (l. 16). Plath applies personification when at the sunset the â€Å"colors assert themselves† (l. 14). Once again, this gives nature an independence. The speaker uses alliteration, such as â€Å"blank-brained† (l. 27), to reassure the reader that the environment is stress-free. Another example is when the speaker admires the reflection of the stars in a lake by saying â€Å"Planets pulse in the lake like bright amoebas† (l. 23). Coupled with a sound device, the allusion to â€Å"Lethe† (l. 6) refers to the mythological river which was sought after for its peaceful forgetfulness. This also symbolizes the comfort and refuge in the calming wilderness that the speaker finds. The uses of these figurative language devices are greatly significant in the speaker’s expression of attitude. In conclusion, Sylvia Plath’s poem â€Å"Two Campers in Cloud Country† expresses two contrasting attitudes. Through the use of diction and figurative language, the speaker’s attitudes are clearly portrayed. These devices contributed immensely in making concrete the expression of the two tones.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Leadership in Crisis Essay - 1146 Words

Leadership in Crisis: Ernest Shackleton and the Epic Voyage of the Endurance 1. In what context should the Endurance expedition be analyzed? As a scientific endeavor? An entrepreneurial venture? An exercise in imperial opportunity? By what criteria should the expedition be evaluated? Given your answer to the preceding question, was it a success or a failure? I believe that this expedition should be analyzed as an entrepreneurial venture because the South Pole had already been found so there were no more continents for Shackleton to conquer. He would not be a hero in this venture because Robert Falcon Scott had already been there and died a hero. Shackleton had to find his own resources for this adventure as most entrepreneurs†¦show more content†¦Was Shackleton an entrepreneur? I believe Shackleton definitely was an entrepreneur in this expedition. Shackleton had to pursue opportunity and he did with the few resources that he had. Entrepreneurs are made, not born, and entrepreneurship is a way of managing, not necessarily a way of being as a person. Any of us can be an entrepreneur. Shackleton showed great skill as a manager and entrepreneur in this situation. He was able to motivate and keep his â€Å"company† together through very hard times. Shackleton was able to revise and reset his objectives as the venture changed many times as well. This was not a good time to explore the South Pole because England was at war and this expedition had been done before. Not many people were behind Shackleton at the time of his grand plan to walk across the South Pole. He was considered to be out of touch with his crazy idea. Shackleton was a huge risk taker that many other entrepreneurs have been in history. He was also proved he was such a great leader that 8 o f the men who were on the voyage, signed up to join him on his next trip to Antarctica. 3. What parallels do you see between Shackleton and other entrepreneurs or leaders whom you have studied? What were Shackleton’s strengths and weaknesses? The parallels I see to other great leaders and entrepreneurs are: the willingness to neverShow MoreRelatedLeadership in Crisis Situation1566 Words   |  7 Pagesdamages that are still being accounted more than 2 years later. During the crisis, many differing accounts of leadership emerged – US Gov’t, BP Execs, and the JIC provide 3 contrasting portrayals of leadership in crisis situation that illustrate the importance and impacts of preparation, perception, communication, and courage. 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